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جمهورية الكونجو الديمقراطية

  • الرئيس:Félix Tshisekedi
  • رئيس الوزراء:Sylvestre Ilunga
  • العاصمة:Kinshasa
  • اللغات:French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
  • الحكومة:No data
  • مكتب الإحصائيات القومي:No data
  • السكان والأشخاص:84,068,091 (2018)
  • المساحة ، كم مربع:2,267,050
  • الناتج المحلي الإجمالي للفرد ، بالدولار الأمريكي:562 (2018)
  • الناتج المحلي الإجمالي ، مليار دولار أمريكي حالي:47.2 (2018)
  • مؤشر GINI:No data
  • تصنيف سهولة ممارسة الأعمال:184

Pollution

All datasets:  E G M
  • E
    • تشرين الثاني 2018
      المصدر: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 01 آب, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. The underlying PM2.5 concentrations estimates are taken from van Donkelaar et al. (2016). They have been derived using satellite observations and a chemical transport model, calibrated to global ground-based measurements using Geographically Weighted Regression at 0.01° resolution. The underlying population data, Gridded Population of the World, version 4 (GPWv4) are taken from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) at the NASA. The underlying boundary geometries are taken from the Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) developed by the FAO, and the OECD Territorial Classification, when available. The current version of the database presents much more variation with respect to the previous one. The reason is that the underlying concentration estimates previously included smoothed multi-year averages and interpolations; while in the current version annual concentration estimates are used. Establishing trends of pollution exposure should be done with care, especially at smaller output areas, as their inputs (e.g. underlying data and models) can change from year to year. We recommend using a 3-year moving average for visualisation.
  • G
    • نيسان 2018
      المصدر: United Nations Statistics Division
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 21 تشرين الثاني, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Environmental Indicators disseminate global environment statistics on ten indicator themes compiled from a wide range of data sources. The themes and indicator tables were selected based on the current demands for international environmental statistics and the availability of internationally comparable data. Indicator tables, charts and maps with relatively good quality and coverage across countries, as well as links to other international sources, are provided under each theme. Statistics on Water and Waste are based on official statistics supplied by national statistical offices and/or ministries of environment (or equivalent institutions) in response to the biennial UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics, complemented with comparable statistics from OECD and Eurostat, and water resources data from FAO Aqua stat. Statistics on other themes were compiled by UNSD from other international sources. In a few cases, UNSD has made some calculations in order to derive the indicators. However, generally no adjustments have been made to the values received from the source. UNSD is not responsible for the quality, completeness/availability, and validity of the data. Environment statistics is still in an early stage of development in many countries, and data are often sparse. The indicators selected here are those of relatively good quality and geographic coverage. Information on data quality and comparability is given at the end of each table together with other important metadata.
  • M
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 11 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3) have potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. Exposure to ground-level ozone (O3) has serious consequences for human health, contributing to, or triggering, respiratory diseases. These include breathing problems, asthma and reduced lung function (WHO, 2016; Brauer et al., 2016). Ozone exposure is highest in emission-dense countries with warm and sunny summers. The most important determinants are background atmospheric chemistry, climate, anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of ozone precursors such as volatile organic compounds, and the ratios between different emitted chemicals.

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