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ألمانيا

  • السكان والأشخاص:82,695,000 (2017)
  • المساحة ، كم مربع:348,900 (2017)
  • الناتج المحلي الإجمالي للفرد ، بالدولار الأمريكي:44,470 (2017)
  • الناتج المحلي الإجمالي ، مليار دولار أمريكي حالي:3,677.4 (2017)
  • مؤشر GINI:31.7 (2015)
  • تصنيف سهولة ممارسة الأعمال:20 (2017)
All datasets:  A B C E F G H I M O P R S T U W
  • A
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 18 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The OECD's ANalytical Business Enterprise Research and Development (ANBERD) database presents annual data on Research and Development (R&D) expenditures by industry and was developed to provide analysts with comprehensive data on business R&D expenditures. The ANBERD database incorporates a number of estimations that build upon and extend national submissions of business enterprise R&D data by industry (main activity/industry orientation). The current version of the ANBERD database presents OECD countries' and selected non-member economies' business expenditure on R&D since 1987, broken down across 100 manufacturing and service industry groups. The reported data follow the International Standard Industrial Classification, Revision 4 (ISIC Rev. 4) and are expressed in national currencies as well as in US dollars at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), both at current and constant prices.   Main activity and industry orientation: The 2015 Frascati Manual practice is to report BERD on an enterprise basis. The main economic activity of an enterprise is usually defined as that which accounts for most of its economic outputs; this may be identified directly from sales or indirectly proxied (such as by numbers of personnel devoted to different activities). This determines the industry in which the enterprise, and any BERD it carries out, is classified. As such, all BERD of a diversified enterprise (i.e. one with multiple lines of business) is allocated to the same industry, that of its main activity. This enables, as far as possible, the alignment and compatability of BERD data with other economic statistics (e.g. value added broken down by industry). In addition, the Frascati Manual also recommends reporting BERD by industry orientation, whereby the statistical unit’s R&D is distributed across the various lines of business to which it relates. In a few countries, hybrid approaches are followed and reported as main activity data. As an example, some countries primarily follow the main activity approach but redistribute the R&D of large diversified firms across the economic activities to which it relates. This can affect interpretation of the data and resulting statistics. There are also important differences between countries in the treatment of R&D undertaken by firms in the service sector but closely associated (though not necessarily contractually) with manufacturing firms. Industrial research institutes, largely funded by the manufacturing industries they serve, are the most frequent examples. With the implementation of the 2015 Frascati Manual, such hybrid data will be phased out in favour of a strict main activity approach. Countries still reporting hybrid data are flagged in the ANBERD country notes.
  • B
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 23 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB), Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • أيار 2017
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 12 حزيران, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2000 prices and PPPs). Variables collected This table presents research and development (R&D) expenditure statistics performed in the business enterprise sector by industry according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 3.1. and by type of costs (current expenditure, capital expenditure). Data at the industry level are presented beginning 1987, year when most of the countries converted from ISIC rev.2 to the current ISIC rev. 3 classification. This breakdown between industries is, in principle, made at the enterprise level, although some countries are able to break down R&D data for multi product enterprises between their main lines of business. National statistical regulations prevent publication of results where there are very few firms in the given category, hence the many gaps in the tables. Depending on the country, R&D institutes serving enterprises are either classified with the industry concerned, or grouped under “Research and Development” (ISIC rev.3.1, Division 73). When these R&D institutes are classified with the industry served, the evaluation of R&D in these industries is more complete and more comparable between countries for the industries concerned. This results, however, in an underestimation of the percentage of BERD performed by the service sector as compared with other countries. The Frascati Manual recommendation concerning data on R&D by industry is to report BERD on an enterprise basis (see FM section 3.4). When this is interpreted strictly, all the BERD of a diversified enterprise will be allocated to the industrial class of its principal activity. In circumstances where a few large firms dominate R&D spending in several areas, this can and does lead to underestimates of R&D associated with the secondary activities of the firms. Overall, R&D is therefore overestimated for some industries and underestimated for others. However, not all countries follow a strict enterprise basis for allocating R&D expenditures to industrial classes. Some countries make a disaggregation of the R&D of their largest, diversified firms into a number of different activities. In other countries, the enterprise approach has been abandoned and data are reported on a product field basis. This is why two classification criteria for BERD by industry are included in the table “BERD by industry” (see the variable CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA: Main activity or Product field) depending on which approach is more closely followed by each country (only a few countries currently collect these data both ways and are therefore included according to both criteria). However, this table “BERD by industry and type of costs” and the preceding one “BERD by industry and source of funds” present data for only one of the criteria, depending on the country.
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • أيار 2017
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 20 حزيران, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 05 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2005 prices and PPPs). Variables collected This table presents research and development (R&D) expenditure statistics performed in the business enterprise sector by industry according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 3.1. Data at the industry level are presented beginning 1987, year when most of the countries converted from ISIC rev.2 to the current ISIC rev. 3 classification. This breakdown between industries is, in principle, made at the enterprise level, although some countries are able to break down R&D data for multi product enterprises between their main lines of business. National statistical regulations prevent publication of results where there are very few firms in the given category, hence the many gaps in the tables. Depending on the country, R&D institutes serving enterprises are either classified with the industry concerned, or grouped under “Research and Development” (ISIC rev.3.1, Division 73). When these R&D institutes are classified with the industry served, the evaluation of R&D in these industries is more complete and more comparable between countries for the industries concerned. This results, however, in an underestimation of the percentage of BERD performed by the service sector as compared with other countries. The Frascati Manual recommendation concerning data on R&D by industry is to report BERD on an enterprise basis (see FM section 3.4). When this is interpreted strictly, all the BERD of a diversified enterprise will be allocated to the industrial class of its principal activity. In circumstances where a few large firms dominate R&D spending in several areas, this can and does lead to underestimates of R&D associated with the secondary activities of the firms. Overall, R&D is therefore overestimated for some industries and underestimated for others. However, not all countries follow a strict enterprise basis for allocating R&D expenditures to industrial classes. Some countries make a disaggregation of the R&D of their largest, diversified firms into a number of different activities. In other countries, the enterprise approach has been abandoned and data are reported on a product field basis. This is why two classification criteria for BERD by industry are included in this view of “BERD by industry” (see the variable CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA: Main activity or Product field) depending on which approach is more closely followed by each country (only a few countries currently collect these data both ways and are therefore included according to both criteria)). The two tables that follow, “BERD by industry and source of funds” and “BERD by industry and type of costs” present data for only one of the criteria, depending on the country.
    • أيار 2017
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 09 حزيران, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2005 prices and PPPs). Variables collected This table presents research and development (R&D) expenditure statistics performed in the business enterprise sector by industry according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 3.1. and by source of funds (business enterprise, government, other national funds, and funds from abroad). Data at the industry level are presented beginning 1987, year when most of the countries converted from ISIC rev.2 to the current ISIC rev. 3 classification. This breakdown between industries is, in principle, made at the enterprise level, although some countries are able to break down R&D data for multi product enterprises between their main lines of business. National statistical regulations prevent publication of results where there are very few firms in the given category, hence the many gaps in the tables. Depending on the country, R&D institutes serving enterprises are either classified with the industry concerned, or grouped under “Research and Development” (ISIC rev.3.1, Division 73). When these R&D institutes are classified with the industry served, the evaluation of R&D in these industries is more complete and more comparable between countries for the industries concerned. This results, however, in an underestimation of the percentage of BERD performed by the service sector as compared with other countries. The Frascati Manual recommendation concerning data on R&D by industry is to report BERD on an enterprise basis (see FM section 3.4). When this is interpreted strictly, all the BERD of a diversified enterprise will be allocated to the industrial class of its principal activity. In circumstances where a few large firms dominate R&D spending in several areas, this can and does lead to underestimates of R&D associated with the secondary activities of the firms. Overall, R&D is therefore overestimated for some industries and underestimated for others. However, not all countries follow a strict enterprise basis for allocating R&D expenditures to industrial classes. Some countries make a disaggregation of the R&D of their largest, diversified firms into a number of different activities. In other countries, the enterprise approach has been abandoned and data are reported on a product field basis. This is why two classification criteria for BERD by industry are included in the table “BERD by industry” (see the variable CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA: Main activity or Product field) depending on which approach is more closely followed by each country (only a few countries currently collect these data both ways and are therefore included according to both criteria). However, this table “BERD by industry and source of funds” and the one that follows, “BERD by industry and type of costs” present data for only one of the criteria, depending on the country.
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 12 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 12 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • أيار 2017
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 13 حزيران, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2010 prices and PPPs). Variables collected This table presents research and development (R&D) expenditure statistics performed in the business enterprise sector. Data include total business enterprise intramural expenditure on R&D by size class and source of funds.
    • أيار 2017
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 21 حزيران, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table presents research and development (R&D) statistics on personnel in the business enterprise sector. Measured in full-time equivalent are the number of total R&D personnel and researchers in the business enterprise sector by industry according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 3.1. Data at the industry level are presented beginning 1987, year when most of the countries converted from ISIC rev.2 to the current ISIC rev. 3 classification.
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 29 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
  • C
    • كانون الأول 2016
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 08 نيسان, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • كانون الأول 2016
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 28 آذار, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Intellectual property refers broadly to the creations of the human mind. Intellectual property rights protect the interests of creators by giving them property rights over their creations. Designs constitute means by which creators seek protection for their industrial property. Designs reflect the non-technological innovation in every sector of economic life, including services. In this context, indicators based on Design data can provide a link between innovation and the market. A design is the outward appearance of a product or part of it, resulting from the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture, materials and/or its ornamentation. The design or shape of a product can be synonymous with the branding and image of a company and can become an asset with increasing monetary value. This domain provides users with data concerning Community Designs. Community Designs refer to design protections throughout the European Union, which covers 28 countries. The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (EUIPO) is the official office of the European Union for the registration of Community Trade marks and Designs. A registered Community design (RCD) is an exclusive right that covers the outward appearance of a product or part of it. The fact that the right is registered confers on the design great certainty should infringement occur. An RCD initially has a life of five years from the filing date and can be renewed in blocks of five years up to a maximum of 25 years. Applicants may market a design for up to 12 months before filing for an RCD without destroying its novelty (Source: EUIPO).
    • كانون الأول 2016
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 28 آذار, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Intellectual property refers broadly to the creations of the human mind. Intellectual property rights protect the interests of creators by giving them property rights over their creations. Designs constitute means by which creators seek protection for their industrial property. Designs reflect the non-technological innovation in every sector of economic life, including services. In this context, indicators based on Design data can provide a link between innovation and the market. A design is the outward appearance of a product or part of it, resulting from the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture, materials and/or its ornamentation. The design or shape of a product can be synonymous with the branding and image of a company and can become an asset with increasing monetary value. This domain provides users with data concerning Community Designs. Community Designs refer to design protections throughout the European Union, which covers 28 countries. The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (EUIPO) is the official office of the European Union for the registration of Community Trade marks and Designs. A registered Community design (RCD) is an exclusive right that covers the outward appearance of a product or part of it. The fact that the right is registered confers on the design great certainty should infringement occur. An RCD initially has a life of five years from the filing date and can be renewed in blocks of five years up to a maximum of 25 years. Applicants may market a design for up to 12 months before filing for an RCD without destroying its novelty (Source: EUIPO).
    • كانون الأول 2016
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 28 آذار, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Intellectual property refers broadly to the creations of the human mind. Intellectual property rights protect the interests of creators by giving them property rights over their creations. Designs constitute means by which creators seek protection for their industrial property. Designs reflect the non-technological innovation in every sector of economic life, including services. In this context, indicators based on Design data can provide a link between innovation and the market. A design is the outward appearance of a product or part of it, resulting from the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture, materials and/or its ornamentation. The design or shape of a product can be synonymous with the branding and image of a company and can become an asset with increasing monetary value. This domain provides users with data concerning Community Designs. Community Designs refer to design protections throughout the European Union, which covers 28 countries. The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (EUIPO) is the official office of the European Union for the registration of Community Trade marks and Designs. A registered Community design (RCD) is an exclusive right that covers the outward appearance of a product or part of it. The fact that the right is registered confers on the design great certainty should infringement occur. An RCD initially has a life of five years from the filing date and can be renewed in blocks of five years up to a maximum of 25 years. Applicants may market a design for up to 12 months before filing for an RCD without destroying its novelty (Source: EUIPO).
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 03 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2012 presents, in a series of country profiles, the main features, strengths and weaknesses of national STI systems and major recent changes in national STI policy. The statistical dimension of the country profiles has drawn on the work and empirical research conducted by the OECD on the measurement of innovation and the development of internationally comparable STI indicators for policy analysis.   
  • E
  • F
  • G
    • تموز 2018
      المصدر: Global Innovation Index
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 02 آب, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The Global Innovation Index (GII) provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of 126 countries which represent 90.8% of the world’s population and 96.3% of global GDP. Its 80 indicators explore a broad vision of innovation, including political environment, education, infrastructure and business sophistication.   The GII 2018 marks the 11th edition of the GII, and the beginning of its second decade providing data and insights gathered from tracking innovation across the globe. This year’s edition, is dedicated to the theme of Energizing the World with Innovation. It analyses the energy innovation landscape of the next decade and identifies possible breakthroughs in fields such as energy production, storage, distribution, and consumption. It also looks at how breakthrough innovation occurs at the grassroots level and describes how small-scale renewable systems are on the rise.
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Knowledge4All
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 18 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data cited at: Knowledge4All,United Nations Development Programme & Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation.   Note-Full Version can be checked here: https://knoema.com/WLDKALLGKI2018Dec/global-knowledge-index The GKI is a partnership initiative between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation (MBRF), it was first announced during the Knowledge Summit in 2016. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the only index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The GKI is composed of six sectoral indices: 1) Pre - university education 2) Technical vocational education and training(TVET) 3) Higher education 4) Research, development and innovation(RDI) 5) Information and communications technology (ICT) 6) Economy in addition to a seventh supporting index on the General Enabling Environment. All values are normalized to a scale from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Knowledge4All
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 18 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data cited at: Knowledge4All,United Nations Development Programme & Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation. The GKI is a partnership initiative between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation (MBRF), it was first announced during the Knowledge Summit in 2016. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the only index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The GKI is composed of six sectoral indices: 1) Pre - university education 2) Technical vocational education and training(TVET) 3) Higher education 4) Research, development and innovation(RDI) 5) Information and communications technology (ICT) 6) Economy in addition to a seventh supporting index on the General Enabling Environment. All values are normalized to a scale from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).   The Pre-University Education sector plays a central role in building the knowledge capital that represents the first input in preparing young people to acquire and produce knowledge. Pre-university education equips youth with scientific knowledge, as well as creative skills and capacities, to access lifelong learning opportunities. This sector is therefore key, as it constitutes the first basis for other sectors to build upon. It is composed of two pillars: knowledge capital and educational enabling environment. The Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector represents the main connection between education and the labour market and provides educated young people with opportunities for professional integration. It contributes to the provision of high-skilled labour and the development of conducive working environments. It is composed of two pillars: formation and professional training and features of the labour market. The Higher Education sector is of high importance, as it is an active component in educating youth, developing their qualifications, and expanding their knowledge and skills, which results in the improvement of a country’s productivity and competitiveness in global markets. It is also considered among the most important factors that directly contribute to the advancement of scientific research and technological development. It is composed of two pillars: higher education inputs and higher education outputs and quality. Research, Development, and Innovation (RDI) contribute to increasing knowledge at the national and regional levels. RDI, which serves as a driver for economic growth and sustainable development in both developed and developing countries, is mainly based on the production of new or improved goods, services, production processes, and organizational models. RDI is closely linked to other sectors as it provides essential inputs to the entire system. It is composed of three pillars: research and development, innovation in production, and social innovation. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays an essential role in supporting the advancement of knowledge across all sectors. Advancements in knowledge-intensive production have become closely linked to the provision of advanced technology, especially as the Internet has increased the opportunities available to acquire knowledge. Therefore, it is essential for countries to employ indicators that quantify their levels of ICT development for the benefit of stakeholders in their societies. It is composed of two pillars: ICT inputs and ICT outputs. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays an essential role in supporting the advancement of knowledge across all sectors. Advancements in knowledge-intensive production have become closely linked to the provision of advanced technology, especially as the Internet has increased the opportunities available to acquire knowledge. Therefore, it is essential for countries to employ indicators that quantify their levels of ICT development for the benefit of stakeholders in their societies. It is composed of two pillars: ICT inputs and ICT outputs. The Knowledge Economy is the main driver of sustainable development, wealth creation, and job creation in various economic fields, across the industrial, agricultural, and service sectors. Unlike the traditional concept of economic resource analysis and availability, a knowledge economy is primarily based on providing economic resources, particularly human resources, with knowledge tools, including digital and technological knowledge assets, as well as innovative and creative skills. It is composed of three pillars: knowledge competitiveness, economic openness, and financing and value added. The General Enabling Environment was added to support the 6 sectoral indices, as these sectors do not operate in isolation from their surroundings, but rather in a space governed by a range of contextual factors – political, socioeconomic, health-related, and environmental. It is composed of three pillars: political and institutional, socio-economic, and health and environment.
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table presents data on Government appropriations or outlays for RD (GBAORD) by socio-economic objective (SEO), using the NABS 2007 classification i.e.: Exploration and exploitation of the Earth, Environment, Exploration and exploitation of space, Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures, Energy, Industrial production and technology, Health, Agriculture, Education, Culture, recreation, religion and mass media, Political and social systems, structures and processes, General advancement of knowledge: RD financed from General University Funds (GUF), General advancement of knowledge: RD financed from sources other than GUF, Defence. Please note that in this new NABS 2007 classification, the three socio-economic objectives -- Education, Culture, recreation, religion and mass media, and Political and social systems, structures and processes -- were previously grouped under a single objective: Social structures and relationships. At the time of this publication there is no breakdown of historical data into the three new SEOs. Another issue relating to the transition from NABS 1993 to NABS 2007 is that what was formerly Other civil research is now to be distributed among the other chapters. This distribution has not yet been done in this database. Therefore, until the countries are in a position to provide breakdown according to the NABS 2007 classification, in some cases GBAORD by SEO is greater than the sum of its chapters.
    • كانون الثاني 2018
      المصدر: National Science Foundation
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 01 شباط, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Courtesy: National Science Foundation   1. R & D stands for Research, Development and Demonstration 2. Clean energy and other non-fossil fuel technologies include renewable (solar, wind, bio fuels, ocean energy, and hydro power), nuclear, hydrogen and fuel cells, CO2 capture and storage, other power and storage, and energy efficiency    
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Indicator refers to Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays on R&D (GBAORD). GBAORD data measure government support to research and development (R&D) activities, or, in other words, how much priority governments place on the public funding of R&D. GBAORD data are built up using the guidelines laid out in the proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development, the OECD’s Frascati Manual from 2002. GBAORD data are broken down by socio-economic objectives in accordance to the nomenclature for the analysis and comparison of scientific programmes and budgets (NABS 2007).
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table presents the relative shares of the different sources of funds in R&D. More specifically the indicators provided are percentage of GERD (Gross domestic expenditure on R&D) financed respectively by industry, government, the higher education and the private non profit sector. The fifth source of funds shown, which also make the breakdown complete, is GERD financed from abroad. R&D is an activity where there are significant transfers of resources between units, organisations, sectors and countries. The importance of the source of funding has been recognized in one of the Barcelona targets of the Lisbon agenda where it is said that the appropriate split for R&D is 1/3 financed by public funds and 2/3 by private.
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The indicator provided is GERD (Gross domestic expenditure on R&D) as a percentage of GDP. "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications" (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63 ).
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 29 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 03 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table contains research and development (R&D) expenditure statistics on gross domestic R&D expenditure by sector of performance (business enterprise, government, higher education, private non-profit, and total intramural) and by field of science (natural sciences, engineering, medical sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities). Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2010 prices and PPPs).
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 03 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2010 prices and PPPs). Variables collected This table presents research and development (R&D) expenditure statistics. Data include gross domestic R&D expenditure by sector of performance (business enterprise, government, higher education, private non-profit, and total intramural) and by type of costs (current expenditures: labour costs, other current costs; and capital expenditures: land and buildings, and instruments and equipment).
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63 ). The GDP used in denominator of the MIP indicator comes from the ESA 2010 transmission programme.
  • H
    • نيسان 2016
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 01 أيار, 2016
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Patents reflect a country's inventive activity. Patents also show the country's capacity to exploit knowledge and translate it into potential economic gains. In this context, indicators based on patent statistics are widely used to assess the inventive performance of countries. This domain provides users with data concerning patent applications to the European Patent Office - EPO, patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office - USPTO and triadic patent families. EPO data refer to all patent applications by priority year as opposed to patents granted by priority year, which is the case of USPTO data.Patents reflect a country's inventive activity. Patents also show the country's capacity to exploit knowledge and translate it into potential economic gains. In this context, indicators based on patent statistics are widely used to assess the inventive performance of countries.
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Patents reflect a country's inventive activity. Patents also show the country's capacity to exploit knowledge and translate it into potential economic gains. In this context, indicators based on patent statistics are widely used to assess the inventive performance of countries. This domain provides users with data concerning patent applications to the European Patent Office - EPO, patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office - USPTO and triadic patent families. EPO data refer to all patent applications by priority year as opposed to patents granted by priority year, which is the case of USPTO data.Patents reflect a country's inventive activity. Patents also show the country's capacity to exploit knowledge and translate it into potential economic gains. In this context, indicators based on patent statistics are widely used to assess the inventive performance of countries.
  • I
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This database presents the 2018 edition of OECD time-series indicators of implied R&D tax subsidy rates for OECD member countries and five non-member economies (Brazil, People's Republic of China, Romania, Russian Federation, and South Africa) over the period 2000-2018, drawing on data collected in the OECD-NESTI R&D tax incentive surveys from 2007 to 2018. The 2018 edition of RDTAXSUB contains time-series estimates that are based on headline tax credit and allowance rates, by firm size and profitability scenario. Due to limited historical data availability, the estimates are not adjusted for provisions that bound the tax benefits received by firms (e.g. ceilings, thresholds). They therefore provide an upper bound for the marginal tax subsidy implied by R&D tax relief measures across countries over time. These estimates should not be confused with separate contemporary cross-sectional OECD estimates of marginal tax subsidy rates (OECD, 2018) that compute adjusted (weighted) tax credit/allowance rates for a number of countries based on available information on the proportion of eligible R&D subject to different marginal levels of relief (see 2017).The tax subsidy rate is defined as 1 minus the B-index, a measure of the before-tax income needed by a “representative” firm to break even on USD 1 of R&D outlays (Warda, 2001). As tax component of the user cost of R&D, the B-Index is is directly linked to measures of effective marginal tax rates. Measures of tax subsidy rates such as those based on the B-index provide a convenient proxy for examining the implications of tax relief provisions. These provide a synthetic representation of the generosity of a tax system from the perspective of a generic or model type of firm for the marginal unit of R&D expenditure. To provide a more accurate representation of different scenarios, B-indices are calculated for “representative” firms according to whether they can claim tax benefits against their tax liability in the reporting period (OECD, 2013). When credits or allowances are fully refundable, the B-index of a firm in such a position is identical to the profit scenario. Carry-forwards are modelled as discounted options to claim incentives in the future, assuming a constant annual probability of returning to profit of 50% and a nominal discount rate of 10%. For general and country-specific notes on the time-series estimates of implied marginal tax subsidy rates on R&D expenditures (based on the B-index), see http://www.oecd.org/sti/rd-tax-stats-bindex-notes.pdf.
    • حزيران 2018
      المصدر: European Commission
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 05 تشرين الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The European Innovation Scoreboard provides a comparative analysis of innovation performance in EU countries, other European countries, and regional neighbors. It assesses relative strengths and weaknesses of national innovation systems and helps countries identify areas they need to address. The Regional Innovation Scoreboard is a regional extension of the European Innovation Scoreboard, assessing the innovation performance of European regions based on a limited number of indicators. The 2017 edition of the Scoreboard presents a refined analytical framework. Rankings are therefore not directly comparable with previous editions, but time series using the new analytical framework allow performance to be tracked over time. New indicators capture investments in skills, digital readiness, entrepreneurship, and public-private innovation partnerships. In addition, a new toolbox with contextual data can be used to analyse and compare structural differences between countries. The new scoreboard reveals that EU innovation performance continues to increase, especially due to improvements in human resources, the innovation-friendly environment, own-resource investments, and attractive research systems. Sweden remains the EU innovation leader, followed by Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, the UK, and Germany. Lithuania, Malta, the UK, the Netherlands, and Austria are the fastest growing innovators. In a global comparison, the EU is catching up with Canada and the US, but South Korea and Japan are pulling ahead. China shows the fastest progress among international competitors.
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 26 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • تموز 2014
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 04 آب, 2014
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The IPP.Stat is the statistics portal of the Innovation Policy Platform containing the main available indicators relevant to a country’s innovation performance. In addition to the traditional indicators used to monitor innovation, the range of the coverage to be found in the IPP.Stat calls for the inclusion of indicators from other domains that describe the broader national and international context in which innovation occurs. Indicators are sourced primarily from the OECD and the World Bank, as well as from other sources of comparable quality. The statistics portal is still under development.
  • M
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 14 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This biannual publication provides a set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and seven non-member economies (Argentina, People's Republic of China, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Chinese Taipei) in the field of science and technology. These data include final or provisional results as well as forecasts established by government authorities. The indicators cover the resources devoted to research and development, patent families, technology balance of payments and international trade in R&D-intensive industries. Also presented are the underlying economic series used to calculate these indicators. Indicators on R&D expenditures, budgets and personnel are derived from the OECD's Research and Development Statistics (RDS) database, which is based on the data reported to OECD and Eurostat in the framework of a co-ordinated collection. The sources for the other indicators include the OECD databases on Activities of Multinational Enterprises (AMNE), on Bilateral Trade in Goods by Industry and End-use Category database (BTDIxE), on Patents and on Technological Balance of Payments (TBP). The R&D data used in this publication have been collected and presented in line with the standard OECD methodology for R&D statistics as laid out in the OECD "Frascati Manual". The 2002 edition of the manual has now been superseded by the 2015 edition. The revised guidelines and definitions are in the course of being implemented and are not expected to change the main indicators significantly although some terminology changes will occur. This edition of MSTI has been compiled in accordance with the 2002 Frascati Manual; these changes will be made in a coming edition as R&D surveys move to the new standard.   2018 values are estimated value.
  • O
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 04 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook reviews key trends in STI policies and performance in OECD countries and major emerging economies. It is published every two years and draws on a unique international policy survey conducted by the OECD - with more than 45 countries involved in 2014 - and the latest OECD work on STI policy analysis and measurement. Following an overview of the recent STI global landscape, key current policy issues are discussed across a series of thematic policy profiles. Country profiles report the STI performance of individual countries and the most recent national policy developments.
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 03 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table contains statistics on research and development (R&D) expenditure performed in the higher education and private non-profit sectors by field of science (natural sciences, engineering, medical sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities) and type of costs (current expenditures, capital expenditures).
    • أيار 2017
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 20 حزيران, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table contains statistics on research and development ( R&D) expenditure performed in the higher education and private non-profit sectors by field of science (natural sciences, engineering, medical sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities) and source of funds (direct government, public general university funds, higher education, private non-profit, business enterprise, and funds from abroad). Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2005 prices and PPPs).
  • P
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: World Intellectual Property Organization
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 11 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Data cited at: "WIPO statistics database" which is made available under a BY 3.0 IGO License   Total Patent Applications Total Count by Applicant's Origin Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire, was the name of Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1971 and 1997.
  • R
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 13 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The objective of these data is to provide information for benchmarking and monitoring developments in ICT sector. ICT sector statistics is used largely in the context of the Monitoring the Digital Economy & Society  2016-2021 (endorsed by the Digital Agenda High Level Group) that follows the 2011 - 2015 benchmarking framework via the Digital Agenda Scoreboard to monitor progress of the European digital economy according to the objectives set out in the Digital Agenda for Europe, a Europe 2020 Initiative. This conceptual framework follows the i2010 Benchmarking Framework which itself followed-up the eEurope 2005 Action Plan. ICT sector indicators are compiled using the secondary statistical analysis. This approach has a virtue of ensuring cost-efficient and high-quality data collection. At the same time, this approach has limited options for designing new indicators, as well as for control over data quality and over data release timing. Data from the Structural Business Statistics (SBS), National Accounts (NA) and Research and Development (R&D) Statistics sections of the Eurostat database are used. For this reason, Metadata guidelines on SBS, on NA and on R&D Statistics are applicable to the data that has been extracted from the respective primary statistics sources. Representation ICT sector statistics contains five indicators in the country/year dimensions, which are updated on an annual basis: (1) Share of the ICT sector in GDP (2) Share of the ICT sector personnel in total employment (3) Growth of the ICT sector value added (4) Share of the ICT sector in the R&D expenditure of businesses (5) Share of the ICT sector in R&D personnel In tables (1)-(3), data for NACE economic activity codes is grouped into three aggregates: ICT sector - total,ICT manufacturingICT Services. Tables (4) and (5) report disaggregated NACE economic activities. Definition ICT sector, ICT manufacturing and ICT services are defined according to the OECD official definition (see OECD, 2011 for details). The 2002 OECD definition in terms of NACE Rev. 1.1 is used on data prior to 2009, while the 2006 OECD definition in terms of NACE Rev. 2 is applied to the data from 2009 onwards. Since the impact of the break in series related to the revision of NACE is minimised due to the compatibility between the two OECD ICT sector definitions, data for each of the indicators (1)-(3) is presented in respective single tables, and not in separate tables for each revision of NACE (as it is done in the source SBS and NA data). Data for the indicators (4) and (5) is based on the NACE Rev. 2 codes of economic activity, with the data for the years prior to 2009 being recalculated using the official correspondence tables between NACE Rev. 2 and NAVE Rev. 1.1. Time coverage Data covers all years starting from 2000 until the latest year available. Following the approach set by the source primary statistics data files, the publication year is calculated as (t+1), with t being the reference year. Data for the indicators (1)-(5) are updated yearly from 2008 until the latest year available (as opposed to simply adding one additional year) to incorporate the latest revisions made on the source data (SBS, NA and R&D statistics). Data prior to 2008 is left unchanged following the approach used in the source data domains.
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      % of active populationThe indicator measures the share of R&D personnel broken down by the following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP). Data are presented in full-time equivalents as a share of the economically active population (the ‘labour force’).
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 17 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 19 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The objective of these data is to provide information for benchmarking and monitoring developments in ICT sector. ICT sector statistics is used largely in the context of the Monitoring the Digital Economy & Society  2016-2021 (endorsed by the Digital Agenda High Level Group) that follows the 2011 - 2015 benchmarking framework via the Digital Agenda Scoreboard to monitor progress of the European digital economy according to the objectives set out in the Digital Agenda for Europe, a Europe 2020 Initiative. This conceptual framework follows the i2010 Benchmarking Framework which itself followed-up the eEurope 2005 Action Plan. ICT sector indicators are compiled using the secondary statistical analysis. This approach has a virtue of ensuring cost-efficient and high-quality data collection. At the same time, this approach has limited options for designing new indicators, as well as for control over data quality and over data release timing. Data from the Structural Business Statistics (SBS), National Accounts (NA) and Research and Development (R&D) Statistics sections of the Eurostat database are used. For this reason, Metadata guidelines on SBS, on NA and on R&D Statistics are applicable to the data that has been extracted from the respective primary statistics sources. Representation ICT sector statistics contains five indicators in the country/year dimensions, which are updated on an annual basis: (1) Share of the ICT sector in GDP (2) Share of the ICT sector personnel in total employment (3) Growth of the ICT sector value added (4) Share of the ICT sector in the R&D expenditure of businesses (5) Share of the ICT sector in R&D personnel In tables (1)-(3), data for NACE economic activity codes is grouped into three aggregates:ICT sector - total,ICT manufacturingICT Services. Tables (4) and (5) report disaggregated NACE economic activities. Definition ICT sector, ICT manufacturing and ICT services are defined according to the OECD official definition (see OECD, 2011 for details). The 2002 OECD definition in terms of NACE Rev. 1.1 is used on data prior to 2009, while the 2006 OECD definition in terms of NACE Rev. 2 is applied to the data from 2009 onwards. Since the impact of the break in series related to the revision of NACE is minimised due to the compatibility between the two OECD ICT sector definitions, data for each of the indicators (1)-(3) is presented in respective single tables, and not in separate tables for each revision of NACE (as it is done in the source SBS and NA data). Data for the indicators (4) and (5) is based on the NACE Rev. 2 codes of economic activity, with the data for the years prior to 2009 being recalculated using the official correspondence tables between NACE Rev. 2 and NAVE Rev. 1.1. Time coverage Data covers all years starting from 2000 until the latest year available. Following the approach set by the source primary statistics data files, the publication year is calculated as (t+1), with t being the reference year. Data for the indicators (1)-(5) are updated yearly from 2008 until the latest year available (as opposed to simply adding one additional year) to incorporate the latest revisions made on the source data (SBS, NA and R&D statistics). Data prior to 2008 is left unchanged following the approach used in the source data domains.
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 16 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 12 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This database provides a set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of central government support for business R&D; in form of R&D; tax incentives and direct funding across OECD member countries and ten non-member economies (Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, People's Republic of China, Romania, Russian Federation, and South Africa). This includes time-series indicators of tax expenditures for R&D;, based on the latest 2017 OECD data collection on tax incentive support for R&D; expenditures that was completed in July 2017. These estimates of the cost of R&D; tax relief have been combined with data on direct R&D; funding, as compiled by National Statistical Offices based on reports from firms, in order to provide a more complete picture of government efforts to promote business R&D.; The latest indicators and information on R&D; tax incentives also feature on the dedicated OECD website Measuring R&D; tax incentives.Tax expenditures are deviations from a benchmark tax system (OECD, 2010) and countries use different national benchmarks. Available estimates typically reflect the sum of foregone tax revenues – on an accruals basis – and refunds where applicable, with no or minimal adjustments for behavior effects. Some countries only report claims realised in a given year (cash basis), while others report losses to government on an accrual basis, excluding claims referring to earlier periods and including claims for current R&D; to be used in the future. For general and country-specific notes on the estimates of government tax relief for R&D; expenditures (GTARD), see http://www.oecd.org/sti/rd-tax-stats-gtard-notes.pdfThe sources for the other indicators (direct funding of BERD, BERD and GDP) include the OECD databases on Main Science and Technology Indicators and Eurostat R&D; statistics.
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 03 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table contains research and development (R&D) expenditure statistics on current domestic R&D and gross domestic R&D expenditures by sector of performance (business enterprise, government, higher education, private non-profit, and total intramural) and by type of R&D within each sector (basic research, applied research, experimental development, non-specified, and total activity). Unit of measure used - Data are provided in million national currency (for the euro zone, pre-EMU euro or EUR), million current PPP USD and million constant USD (2005 prices and PPPs).
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 03 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      These tables present research and development (R&D) personnel statistics for : - Total R&D personnel by sector of employment and field of science, in full-time equivalent on R&D; - Researchers by sex, sector of employment and field of science, in full-time equivant on R&D; - Researchers by sex, sector of employment and field of science, in headcounts. Sectors of employment are business enterprise, government, higher education, private non-profit and total. Breakdown by field of science includes natural sciences, engineering, medical sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities.
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Pallavi S
      تم الوصول في: 03 كانون الأول, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      These tables contain research and development (RD) personnel statistics. Number of RD personnel is provided in both headcounts and full-time equivalent on RD by sex, sector of employment (business enterprise, government, higher education, and private non-profit) and by occupation (researchers, technicians and other support staff).
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 06 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This table presents research and development (R&D) personnel statistics. Number of R&D personnel is provided in headcounts and/or full-time equivalent on R&D by sex, sector of employment (business enterprise, government, higher education, and private non-profit) and by formal qualification (university and other diplomas by ISCED classification). Unit of measure used - Headcounts and/or Full-time equivalent on R&D (FTE)
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D expenditures include all expenditures for R&D performed within the business enterprise sector (BERD) on the national territory during a given period, regardless of the source of funds. R&D expenditure in BERD are shown as a percentage of GDP (R&D intensity).
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: European Commission
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 29 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Note: We have considered the financial years 2015/16, 2016/17 and 2017/18 have been considered as 2015, 2016 and 2017. R&D ranking of EU top 1000 companies
    • كانون الأول 2018
      المصدر: European Commission
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 02 أيار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Note: We have considered the financial years 2015/16, 2016/17 and 2017/18 have been considered as 2015, 2016 and 2017. R&D ranking of the world top 2500 companies
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      R&D personnel include all persons employed directly on R&D, plus persons supplying direct services to R&D, such as managers, administrative staff and office staff. The measure shown in this table is total R&D personnel in full time equivalents as a percentage of the economic active population. Please note that the calculation of the measure in this table has changed from being based on head count to full time equivalents from January 2010. The measure based on head count is still available in Eurostat public data bases, table: Total R&D personnel and researchers by sectors of performance, as % of total labour force and total employment, and by sex (rd_p_perslf)
    • شباط 2019
      المصدر: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 02 أيار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 11 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat) official sources. Definition: Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems and also in the management of the projects concerned (see also: 'Frascati Manual - Proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development', paras. 302-305). The business enterprise sector includes: All firms, organisations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price; The private non-profit institutes mainly serving them. The government sector includes: All departments, offices and other bodies, which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services, other than higher education, which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided and administer the state and the economic and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector); Non-profit institutes (NPIs) controlled and mainly financed by government. The higher education sector includes all universities, colleges of technology and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of or administered by or associated with higher education establishments. The private non-profit sector includes: Non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households (i.e. the general public); Private individuals or households. .. - data not available Country: Canada Break in methodlogy (2000): Business enterprise sector`s collection methodology was changed. Country: Canada Change in definition (2000 - 2013): Government sector does not include all provinces and territories. Country: Canada Reference period (2000 - 2013): Fiscal years are used for government and higher education sector (April to March). Country: Canada Sector subtotals do not sum to “All sectors” category as there are researchers that work in industries other than the four select sectors listed in the table (Groupings refer to NOC 2011 and NAICS 2012 classifications.) Country: Kazakhstan Additional information (2000 - 2012): Data were formed on the basis of the "Report on the implementation of scientific and technical work" Country: Moldova, Republic of Change in definition (2001 - 2012): Data for researchers include only those who are directly involved in a research. Country: Moldova, Republic of Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender Country: Serbia Territorial change (1995 - 2013): The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has no available data on the AP Kosovo and Metohija.
  • S
    • كانون الثاني 2018
      المصدر: National Science Foundation
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 01 شباط, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Courtesy: National Science Foundation
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This domain provides users with data concerning Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays on R&D (GBAORD). GBAORD data are measuring government support to research and development (R&D) activities, or, in other words, how much priority Governments place on the public funding of R&D. GBAORD data are built up using the guidelines laid out in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002 . GBAORD data are broken down by:   - Socio-economic objectives (SEOs) in accordance to the Nomenclature for the analysis and comparison of scientific programmes and budgets (NABS 2007) - .   - Funding mode into: project funding and institutional funding (non-mandatory data). Part of GBAORD, which is allocated to transnational cooperation in R&D, is further broken down into three specific categories: transnational public R&D performers; Europe-wide transnational public R&D programmes and bilateral or multilateral public R&D programmes established between Member State governments or with EFTA and candidate countries. Besides in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_ HAB_KP05), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP), Percentage of total GBAORD (PC_GBA - for the breakdowns by socio-economic objectives and by funding mode), Percentage of total transnationally coordinated R&D (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by category), Percentage of government expenditure (PC_GEXP). The periodicity of the GBAORD data is annual. Data are collected corresponding to the two legally established deadlines:   - June data collection: Preliminary GBAORD data are provided to Eurostat 6 months after the end of the calendar year (June). This data are targeted to be disseminated in Eurobase in September.   - December data collection: Final GBAORD data are provided to Eurostat 12 months after the end of the calendar year (December). This data are targeted to be disseminated in Eurobase in the following February. GBAORD data are available for following countries and country groups:   - All EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland,  Turkey, the Russian Federation, Japan, the United States and South Korea.   - Country groups: EU28, EU15 and EA18.
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. FTE (Full-time equivalent) corresponds to one year's work by one person (for example, a person who devotes 40 % of his time to R&D) is counted as 0.4 FTE. The share of women researchers among total researchers in FTE in all sectors of performance is shown.
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. The share of women researchers among total researchers in head count in all institutional sectors is shown.
    • نيسان 2019
      المصدر: Organisation de Coopération et de Developpement Economique (OCDE)
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 12 نيسان, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      STAN Indicators provides annual indicators related to production and employment structure, labour productivity and labour costs, investment, business research and development expenditures and international trade patterns. Data are presented for OECD countries and cover the time-period 1970-2011, although the time coverage may vary across countries and indicators. Series are provided for a wide range of economic activities (according to an ISIC Rev.4 based hierarchy) compatible with the list in the underlying STAN Database in ISIC Rev. 4. STAN Indicators belong to the STAN family datasets; they are primarily drawn from STAN Database for Structural Analysis (STAN), STAN Bilateral Trade (BTDIxE) and STAN Research & Development Expenditures in Industry (ANBERD). Indicators are compiled to respond to the needs of analysts and researchers interested in measuring economic performance, productivity growth, competitiveness and structural changes. They also complement the OECD publications, Science Technology and Industry Scoreboard and Economic Globalisation Indicators.
  • T
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 23 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 24 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .
    • آذار 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 23 آذار, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .
    • آذار 2018
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 17 آذار, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The indicator provided is GERD (Gross domestic expenditure on R&D) as a percentage of GDP. "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications" (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63 ). Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD): Total gross domestic expenditure on research and experimental development (GERD) as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP).
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 23 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB), Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 23 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB), Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 26 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 23 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB), Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds). R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. FTE (Full-time equivalent) corresponds to one year's work by one person (for example, a person who devotes 40 % of his time to R&D is counted as 0.4 FTE.
    • حزيران 2019
      المصدر: Eurostat
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 22 حزيران, 2019
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. Head count (HC) data measure the total number of researchers who are mainly or partly employed on R&D.
  • U
    • كانون الثاني 2018
      المصدر: National Science Foundation
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 01 شباط, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Courtesy: National Science Foundation
    • كانون الثاني 2018
      المصدر: National Science Foundation
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 29 كانون الثاني, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Courtesy: National Science Foundation
    • كانون الثاني 2018
      المصدر: National Science Foundation
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 29 كانون الثاني, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      Courtesy: National Science Foundation
    • شباط 2018
      المصدر: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 06 تموز, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for global statistics in the fields of education, science and technology, culture and communication. The UIS was established in 1999. It was created to improve UNESCO’s statistical programme and to develop and deliver the timely, accurate and policy-relevant statistics needed in today’s increasingly complex and rapidly changing social, political and economic environments. The UIS is based in Montreal, Canada. The dataset contains over 1,000 types of indicators and raw data on education, literacy, science and technology, culture and communication. The UIS collects the data for more than 200 countries and territories from Member States and international organizations.
    • نيسان 2017
      المصدر: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 07 نيسان, 2017
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
    • كانون الثاني 2018
      المصدر: National Science Foundation
      تم التحميل بواسطة: Knoema
      تم الوصول في: 01 شباط, 2018
      تحديد مجموعة بيانات
      1. USPTO:- U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2. IPC:- International Patent Classification 3. Patents are fractionally allocated among regions/countries/economies based on the proportion of residences of all named inventors 4. The EU includes 28 member countries and China includes Hong Kong. 5. Patents are classified under the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) classification of patents   Courtesy: National Science Foundation
  • W