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نشر بواسطة المصدر: 31 December 2016
The Trade in Value Added (TiVA) database consists of a set of measures that aim to provide better insights into global production networks and supply chains than is possible with conventional trade statistics. See TiVA.
The Origin of value added in gross exportspresented here, is derived from the latest version of OECD’s Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) database and provides estimates of gross exports of goods and services by exporting industry i in country c, broken down by the value added originating from source industry j in source country/region p.
In other words, it reveals how the value of a country’s gross exports of intermediate and final products is an accumulation of value generated by many industries in many countries.
For a description of the method used for calculating these estimates, using the ICIO, see the document TiVA indicators definitions hereafter.
Domestic value added origin is shown where source country p = c and, for convenience, also represented by source country = “DXD: Domestic”.
From this data cube, a range of gross exports-based measures can be derived including those in the main TiVA indicators database such as:
• Total gross exports by industry, EXGR (c,i): set source country p = World, source industry j = CTOTAL.
• Total domestic and foreign value added content of gross exports by industry, EXGR_DVA (c,i) and EXGR_FVA (c,i). For EXGR_DVA, set source country p = DXD “Domestic”, source industry j = CTOTAL.
• Shares of EXGR_DVA and EXGR_FVA in relation to EXGR such as EXGR_DVASH (c,i), EXGR_TDVAIND (c,i), and the “GVC backward linkage” indicators EXGR_FVASH (c,i) and EXGR_TFVAIND (c,i).
• “GVC forward linkage” indicators such as EXGR_DVAFXSH.
• Service value added contents of gross exports EXGR_SERV_DVASH(c,i) and EXGR_SERV_FVASH(c,i). Set source industry j = “C45T95: Total Services including Construction activities”.
For regions, exports exclude intra-regional trade and intra-regional value added flows are considered as domestic value added. For example, for exporting region EU28, exports are to non-EU28 and source country “DXD : domestic” includes value added originating from Member States.
Note that the same value added originating from industry j in country p can be present in the gross exports of more than one country c (as embodied value added, from upstream production, may cross national borders many times). In general, therefore, these estimates should be viewed from the perspective of the exporting country c and exporting industry i. However, for indicators of “GVC forward linkages” a source country p, source industry jperspective is required.