Total fertility in all countries is assumed to converge eventually toward a level of 1.85 children per woman. However, not all countries reach this level during the projection period, that is, by 2045-2050. Projection procedures differ slightly depending on whether a country had a total fertility above or below 1.85 children per woman in 2005-2010. Fertility in high- and medium-fertility countries is assumed to follow a path derived from models of fertility decline established by the United Nations Population Division on the basis of the past experience of all countries with declining fertility during 1950-2010. The models relate the level of total fertility during a period to the average expected decline in total fertility during the next period. If the total fertility projected by a model for a country falls to 1.85 children per woman before 2050, total fertility is held constant at that level for the remainder of the projection period (that is, until 2050). Therefore, the level of 1.85 children per woman represents a floor value below which the total fertility of high- and medium-fertility countries is not allowed to drop before 2050. However, it is not necessary for all countries to reach the floor value by 2050. If the model of fertility change produces a total fertility above 1.85 children per woman for 2045-2050, that value is used in projecting the population. In all cases, the projected fertility paths yielded by the models are checked against recent trends in fertility for each country. When a country’s recent fertility trends deviate considerably from those consistent with the models, fertility is projected over an initial period of 5 or 10 years in such a way that it follows recent experience. The model projection takes over after that transition period. For instance, in countries where fertility has stalled or where there is no evidence of fertility decline, fertility is projected to remain constant for several more years before a declining path sets in. Fertility in low-fertility countries is generally assumed to remain below 2.1 children per woman during most of the projection period and reach 1.85 children per woman by 2045-2050. For countries where total fertility was below 1.85 children per woman in 2005-2010, it is assumed that over the first 5 or 10 years of the projection period fertility will follow the recently observed trends in each country. After that transition period, fertility is assumed to increase linearly at a rate of 0.05 children per woman per quinquennium. Thus, countries whose fertility is currently very low need not reach a level of 1.85 children per woman by 2050. Projected levels of net migration are generally kept constant over most of the projection period. Mortality is projected on the basis of models of change of life expectancy produced by the United Nations Population Division. These models produce smaller gains the higher the life expectancy already reached. The selection of a model for each country is based on recent trends in life expectancy by sex. For countries highly affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the model incorporating a slow pace of mortality decline has generally been used to project a certain slowdown in the reduction of general mortality risks not related to HIV/AIDS.